What is Dystonia?
Dystonia is a neurological disorder that causes excessive, involuntary muscle contractions. These muscle contractions result in abnormal muscle movements and body postures, making it difficult for individuals to control their movements. The movements and postures may be painful. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and repetitive.
Dystonia can affect any region of the body including the eyelids, face, jaw, neck, vocal cords, torso, limbs, hands, and feet. Depending on the region of the body affected, dystonia may look quite different from person to person.
In addition to causing abnormal movements, depression and anxiety are common non-motor symptoms of dystonia.
- A body part is flexed or twisted into an abnormal position.
- Repetitive and patterned body movements, which may resemble tremor.
- Dystonic symptoms may worsen or occur only with specific tasks. For example, hand dystonia may be present only when writing or playing a musical instrument.
- Attempting a movement task on one side of the body my activate dystonia symptoms on the opposite side.
- Dystonic movements and postures may be temporarily relieved by a gentle touch or specific action called a sensory trick.
At this time, there is no single test to confirm the diagnosis of dystonia. Instead, the diagnosis rests in a physician's ability to observe the symptoms and obtain a thorough patient history. Medical tests may be ordered to rule out other conditions or disorders.
The sub-specialist who typically has the training to diagnose and treat dystonia is a movement disorder neurologist.
The dystonia diagnostic process may include:
- Patient history
- Family history
- Physical examination to assess functioning of the nervous system
- Laboratory studies such as blood and urine tests, and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid
- Electrical recording techniques, such as electromyography (EMG) or electroencephalography (EEG)
- Genetic testing for inherited forms of dystonia
- Additional tests and screenings intended to rule out other conditions or disorders
Dystonia symptoms should not be confused with:
- Orthopedic conditions (for example, scoliosis and congenital torticollis)
- Muscle cramps
- Muscle contractures
- Essential tremor
Your healthcare providers may use unfamiliar language to talk about dystonia:
Focal: Dystonia that affects a single body part, for example, the neck.
Segmental: Dystonia that affects two or more connected body parts, for example the face, neck, and arm.
Generalized: Dystonia that affects the torso and at least two other body areas, frequently the limbs.
Isolated or Primary: Dystonia is the only neurological symptom a person appears to have.
Acquired or Secondary: Dystonia that appears to have a specific cause such as drug reaction, brain injury, or as a symptom of another neurological or metabolic disorder.
Paroxysmal Dyskinesias: Dystonia may occur in episodes, often with additional movement symptoms.
Psychogenic or Functional: Dystonia may occur as part of a functional neurological disorder in which movement symptoms have a combination of neurological and psychiatric/psychological causes.