Yips and dystonia are task-specific motor disorders that affect both athletes and musicians. In the realm of sports, the term “yips” describes a focal dystonia that causes involuntary muscle spasms during specific movements, impeding precise motor control. Similarly, musicians can develop focal dystonia, known as musician’s dystonia or musician’s cramp, which disrupts their ability to play instruments accurately due to involuntary muscle contractions.

While yips and musician’s dystonia manifest in different contexts, they share similarities with other forms of dystonia characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and their impact on motor control. The causes of both are not yet understood.